Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Fellow’s Stitch Using “Fisherman’s Knot” Technique to Achieve Large Caliber (> 10 French) Venous Hemostasis

Prakash Kumar, Puneet Aggarwaal, Santosh Kumar Sinha, Umeshwar Pandey, Mahmodula Razi, Awdesh Kumar Sharma, Ramesh Thakur, Chandra Mohan Varma, Vinay Krishna


Background: Among patients undergoing intervention involving venous access, various techniques have been implemented to achieve hemostasis in order to reduce local access site complications, to decrease length of stay and to facilitate early ambulation. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of fellow’s stitch using “fisherman’s knot” (figure of Z (FoZ)) technique when compared with conventional manual compression for immediate closure of large venous sheath (> 10 French (Fr)).

Methods: Between November 2012 and March 2019, 949 patients underwent various interventions which involved venous access requiring hemostasis. All the patients were anticoagulated with heparin during the procedure. In a sequential allocation, fellow’s stitch using “fisherman’s knot” (group I: n = 384) and conventional manual compression (group II: n = 365) were used in achieving hemostasis at right/left femoral venous access site following sheath removal (> 12 Fr). A 0-Vicryl suture was used to make one deep stitch just distal to entry of sheath and one superficial stitch just proximal to entry site, thereby creating an FoZ. A fisherman’s knot was then tied, and knot was pushed down while sheath was removed. In cases where immediate hemostasis was not achieved, it was compressed for 2 min to achieve it.

Results: The mean age of 949 patients was 13.1 ± 8.2 years where male (n = 574; 65%) outnumbered female (n = 375; 35%). In group I, hemostasis was achieved immediately after tying the knot in 343 (89.3%) patients, while within ≤ 2 min of light pressure in 41 (10.7%) patients. Five (1.3%) patients had failure of stitch as suture snapped during knotting, and hemostasis was achieved by manual compression as per protocol in group I. The median time to hemostasis (1.1 vs. 14.3 min, P < 0.001), ambulation (3.3 vs. 18.9 h, P < 0.01) and hospital stay (24.6 vs. 36.8 h, P < 0.001) was significantly shorter in group I compared to group II. The minor vascular access site complications in form of hematoma (n = 6 (1.6%) vs. n = 1 (0.2%); P < 0.001), and thrombosis at femoral vein (n = 4 (1.1%) vs. n = 0 (0%); P < 0.001) were significantly higher in group II when compared to group I. The differences regarding re-bleeding and formation of arterio-venous fistula between both the groups were statistically insignificant.

Conclusion: The fellow’s stitch using “fisherman’s knot” or “FoZ” suture is a simple, efficacious and safe technique to achieve an immediate hemostasis after removal of larger venous sheath (> 10 Fr).

Cardiol Res. 2019;10(5):303-308
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/cr931


Fellow’s stitch; Fisherman’s knot; Figure of Z; Venous hemostasis

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