Echocardiographic Characteristics of Subjects With COVID-19: A Case Series

Raymundo Vera-Pineda, Edgar Francisco Carrizales-Sepulveda, Adrian Camacho-Ortiz, Laura Nuzzolo-Shihadeh, Francisco Cruz-Ramos, Alejandro Ordaz-Farias, Mario Alberto Benavides-Gonzalez, Gabriel Carranza-Villegas

Abstract


Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifests in most cases with respiratory symptoms, other presentations can occur. Direct damage to the cardiovascular system has been reported and recently, acute myocardial injury has been identified as a risk factor for mortality. Transthoracic echocardiography is a non-invasive tool that allows the detection of myocardial damage with validated markers (left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain). Herein, we present the echocardiographic findings in four patients with COVID-19. All cases had acute respiratory distress syndrome (100%). Three out of four had elevated levels of creatine kinase and creatine kinase myocardial band. One case had ventricular concentric remodeling (25%). All cases (100%) had altered ventricular function: two had a reduced ejection fraction (50%) and, of those available for global longitudinal strain analysis, all had abnormal global longitudinal strain (100%). One case was found to have a tricuspid vegetation of 12 × 10 mm with no other manifestation of endocarditis. All of our cases had left ventricular dysfunction as assessed by echocardiography. One of our patients had a vegetation in the tricuspid valve. Two of our cases had a reduced ejection fraction. The importance of acute cardiac injury in COVID-19 has recently been established. A recent study found it to be an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with this disease. Information regarding echocardiographic characteristics of this population is scarce. Further research to elucidate the impact of these characteristics on morbidity and mortality is urgently needed.




Cardiol Res. 2020;11(4):260-265
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/cr1084


Keywords


COVID-19; Heart failure; Transthoracic echocardiography

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