Cardiol Res
Cardiology Research, ISSN 1923-2829 print, 1923-2837 online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, Cardiol Res and Elmer Press Inc
Journal website http://www.cardiologyres.org

Case Report

Volume 6, Number 3, June 2015, pages 286-288


Ping-Pong Mitral Stenosis: Left Atrial Myxoma With Mitral Stenosis and Pulmonary Hypertension in an Octogenarian

Prem Krishna Anandana, b, Natesh Bengaluru Hanumanthappaa, Prabhavathi Bhata, Cholenahally Nanjappa Manjunatha, Dhanalakshmi Chandrasekarana

aSri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sciences, Bannerghatta Road, Jayanagar 9th Block, Bangalore, Karnataka 560069, India
bCorresponding Author: Prem Krishna Anandan, Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sciences, Room No. 107, Bannerghatta Road, Jayanagar 9th Block, Bangalore, Karnataka 560069, India

Manuscript accepted for publication May 21, 2015
Short title: Ping-Pong Mitral Stenosis
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/cr399w

Abstract▴Top 

Left atrial (LA) myxoma presenting with symptoms of mitral stenosis in elderly males is very rare accounting for 10% of the cases. We report an 80-year-old male who presented with symptoms of orthopnea and palpitations and was subsequently found to have a large LA myxoma obstructing the mitral valve and causing pulmonary hypertension (PHT).

Keywords: LA myxoma; Mitral stenosis; Atrial fibrillation; Pulmonary hypertension

Introduction▴Top 

Left atrial (LA) myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors and can have varied modes of presentation. Apart from embolic and systemic symptoms, they can mimic mitral stenosis when they obstruct the mitral valve. A high index of suspicion is required when they present in elderly males with symptoms of mitral valve obstruction.

Case Report▴Top 

An 80-year-old male presented to us with symptoms of paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND), orthopnea, and palpitations for 3 months duration. Symptoms had particularly worsened after the onset of palpitations. He had no prior risk factors like diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and hypo/hyperthyroidism. He also denied any constitutional symptoms like fever, weight loss, and arthralgia. On examination his pulse was irregular (100 beats/min), and blood pressure was 112/70 mm Hg. Cardiovascular examination revealed a variable first heart sound, mid diastolic murmur at the apex, no tumor plop, and loud pulmonary component of second heart sound. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. Chest X-ray revealed a straight left heart border with features of pulmonary venous hypertension. 2D echocardiogram (Fig. 1-3) showed a large homogenous pedunculated mass (4.7 × 3.2 cm) attached to interatrial septum obstructing the mitral valve in diastole (Supplementary video 1, www.cardiologyres.org). There was moderate tricuspid regurgitation with a TR jet of 60 mm Hg indicating pulmonary hypertension (PHT). The patient underwent successful surgical excision of the mass (Fig. 4). Histopathology was consistent with myxoma.

Figure 1.
Click for large image
Figure 1. Apical four-chamber view showing a large myxoma obstructing mitral valve in diastole.

Figure 2.
Click for large image
Figure 2. Apical four-chamber view showing a 4.7 × 3.2 cm myxoma.

Figure 3.
Click for large image
Figure 3. Apical four-chamber view showing moderate tricuspid regurgitation.

Figure 4.
Click for large image
Figure 4. Gross specimen of surgically removed myxoma.
Discussion▴Top 

Myxoma is the most common primary cardiac tumor with an incidence of 0.0017-0.19% in autopsy series. They account for 80% of primary tumors [1]. Most common age of presentation is between 3 and 80 years with a female preponderance. Sporadic cases present in the fifth decade while familial cases present in the second decade. Familial myxomas are usually multiple with a high recurrence rate. Seventy-five percent of myxomas are located in the left atrium, 20% in the right atrium and the remaining 5% in the ventricles [2, 3]. Due to a variety of nonspecific findings at first presentation, myxoma is initially suspected in only 5% of patients [4]. Clinical manifestations can be classified into cardiac (67%), embolic (29%), and systemic (34%) symptoms [5]. Most myxomas produce symptoms when they weigh greater than 70 g. Elderly patients often present with nonspecific symptoms like fatigue, palpitations, TIA, arthralgia, and low grade fever that are often overlooked in the absence of a supporting cardiac history which makes an early diagnosis challenging. Reports similar to our case mimicking mitral stenosis, presenting with atrial fibrillation and signs of PHT have been described by Leo et al [6]. Such rare presentations account for only 10% of cases [7]. The severity of obstruction is determined by the size, location and mobility of the myxoma [8].

Conclusion

A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose LA myxoma especially in older males where nonspecific symptoms can delay diagnosis and can adversely affect prognosis especially when atrial fibrillation and PHT have already set in.

Acknowledgement

We thank Dr. Mithravinda, consultant pathologist, for histopathological analysis and Mrs. C. Dhanalakshmi, Tutor in Echocardiography, for the echocardiography images.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


References▴Top 
  1. Blondeau P. Primary cardiac tumors--French studies of 533 cases. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1990;38(Suppl 2):192-195.
    doi pubmed
  2. Vale Mde P, Freire Sobrinho A, Sales MV, Teixeira MM, Cabral KC. Giant myxoma in the left atrium: case report. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2008;23(2):276-278.
    pubmed
  3. Diaz A, Di Salvo C, Lawrence D, Hayward M. Left atrial and right ventricular myxoma: an uncommon presentation of a rare tumour. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2011;12(4):622-623.
    doi pubmed
  4. Goswami KC, Shrivastava S, Bahl VK, Saxena A, Manchanda SC, Wasir HS. Cardiac myxomas: clinical and echocardiographic profile. Int J Cardiol. 1998;63(3):251-259.
    doi
  5. Pinede L, Duhaut P, Loire R. Clinical presentation of left atrial cardiac myxoma. A series of 112 consecutive cases. Medicine (Baltimore). 2001;80(3):159-172.
    doi
  6. Leo S, Yang K, Weng C, Liang Z. Large atrial myxoma mimicking severe mitral stenosis associated with right heart enlargement and severe pulmonary hypertension. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2013;3(1):52-54.
    pubmed
  7. Ojji DB, Mamven MH, Omonua O, Habib Z, Osaze H, Sliwa K. Left atrial myxoma mimicking mitral stenosis. Clin Med Insights Case Rep. 2012;5:111-114.
    doi pubmed
  8. Carney JA. The Carney complex (myxomas, spotty pigmentation, endocrine overactivity, and schwannomas). Dermatol Clin. 1995;13(1):19-26.
    doi


This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cardiology Research is published by Elmer Press Inc.

 
Home     |     Log In     |      About     |      Search     |      Current     |      Archives     |      Submit      |     Subscribe


 

     

Aims and Scope

Current Issues

Conflict of Interest

About Publisher

Editorial Board

Archives

Copyright

Company Profile

Editorial Office

Misconduct and Retraction

Permissions

Company Registration

Contact Us

Abstracting and Indexing

ICMJE

Ownership

Instructions to Authors

Access

Declaration of Helsinki

Contact Publisher

Submission Checklist

Reprints

Terms of Use

Company Address

Submit a Manuscript

Open Access Policy

Privacy Policy

Browse Journals

Publishing Fee

Publishing Policy

Disclaimer

Recent Highlights

Peer-Review Process

Publishing Quality

Code of Ethics

Advertising Policy

Manuscript Tracking

Advanced Search

For Librarians

Careers

Publishing Process

Publication Frequency

For Reviewers

Propose a New Journal

       
       

Cardiology Research, bimonthly, ISSN 1923-2829 (print), 1923-2837 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.        
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.

This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)


This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website: www.cardiologyres.org   editorial contact: editor@cardiologyres.org
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

DECLARATION: THIS JOURNAL SITE OUTLOOK IS DESIGNED BY THE PUBLISHER AND COPYRIGHT PROTECTED. DO NOT COPY!