Thyrotoxic Valvulopathy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Keniel Pierre, Sushee Gadde, Bassam Omar, G. Mustafa Awan, Christopher Malozzi

Abstract


We report a 42-year-old female who was admitted for abdominal pain, and also endorsed dyspnea, fatigue and chronic palpitations. Past medical history included asthma, patent ductus arteriosus repaired in childhood and ill-defined thyroid disease. Physical examination revealed blood pressure of 136/88 mm Hg and heart rate of 149 beats per minute. Cardiovascular exam revealed an irregularly irregular rhythm, and pulmonary exam revealed mild expiratory wheezing. Abdomen was tender. Electrocardiogram revealed atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response which responded to intravenous diltiazem. Labs revealed TSH of < 0.1 mU/L and free T4 of 2.82 ng/dL, a positive TSH-receptor and thyroid peroxidase antibodies suggesting Grave’s thyrotoxicosis. A transthoracic echocardiogram reported an ejection fraction of 55-60%, with mild to moderate mitral regurgitation (MR) and moderate to severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and dilated right heart chambers. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure was 52 mm Hg. Transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a myxomatous tricuspid valve with thickening and malcoaptation of the leaflets and moderate to severe TR, mild to moderate MR with mild thickening of the mitral valve leaflets. Abdominal ultrasound revealed wall thickening of the gall bladder concerning for acute cholecystitis. She underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and was discharged in stable condition on methimazole for her thyroid disease, and on oral diltiazem for rate control and anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation. Follow-up visit with her cardiologist few months later documented absence of cardiac symptoms, and no murmurs were reported on physical examination. This case underscores the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for hyperthyroidism when faced with significant newly diagnosed pulmonary hypertension and TR, as treatment of the thyroid abnormalities can reverse these cardiac findings.




Cardiol Res. 2017;8(3):134-138
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/cr564w

Keywords


Tricuspid regurgitation; Pulmonary hypertension; Thyrotoxicosis

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