Main Considerations of Cardiogenic Shock and Its Predictors: Systematic Review

Maria Christiane Valeria Braga Braile-Sternieri, Eliana Migliorini Mustafa, Victor Rodrigues Ribeiro Ferreira, Sofia Braile Sabino, Giovanni Braile Sternieri, Lucia Angelica Buffulin de Faria, Bethina Canaroli Sbardellini, Cibele Olegario Vianna Queiroz, Domingo Marcolino Braile, Idiberto Jose Zotarelli Filho

Abstract


The mortality rate of post-infarction cardiogenic shock (CS) was 80.0-90.0%. Recent studies show a significant reduction of hospital mortality to approximately 50.0%. CS is defined as systemic tissue hypoperfusion resulting from systolic and/or diastolic heart dysfunction, the main cause of which is acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The main predictors are biological markers such as troponin, CKMB and lactate. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis is performed in order to present and correlate the main literary findings on CS and its evolution with possible changes in biomarkers such as troponin, lactate and CKMB. After criteria of literary search with the use of the mesh terms: cardiogenic shock; acute myocardial infarction; biomarkers; troponin; CKMB; lactate; clinical trials and use of the bouleanos “and” between the mesh terms and “or” among the historical findings. In the main databases such as Pubmed, Medline, Bireme, EBSCO, Scielo, etc., a total of 96 papers that were submitted to the eligibility analysis were collated and, after that, 41 studies were selected, following the rules of systematic review - PRISMA (Transparent reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyzes-http://www.prisma-statement.org/). Some risk factors for its development in AMI are advanced age, female gender, anterior wall infarction, diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension, previous history of infarction and angina. The CS associated with AMI depends on its extent and its complications, being the main ones: mitral regurgitation, rupture of the interventricular septum and rupture of the free wall of the left ventricule. The diagnosis is based on the clinical manifestations, such as mental confusion, oliguria, hypotension, tachycardia, fine pulse, sweating, and cold extremities; in hemodynamic aspects: systolic blood pressure was < 90.0 mm Hg or 30 mm Hg below baseline, pulmonary capillary pressure was > 18.0 mm Hg and cardiac index was < 2.2 L/min/m2. Laboratory and imaging exams should be requested to evaluate the possible etiology of CS, its systemic repercussions and comorbidities. The treatment aims at the rapid reestablishment of the blood flow in the affected artery, to improve the patient’s prognosis. The biomarkers dosage in the daily clinical practice of the different cardiological centers can facilitate the diagnosis and the conduction of the dubious cases and the best evaluation of the degree of myocardial suffering after CS.




Cardiol Res. 2018;9(2):75-82
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/cr715w


Keywords


Cardiogenic shock; Acute myocardial infarction; Biomarkers; Troponin; CKMB; Lactate; Clinical trials

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